Bondage, Discipline, and Sadomasochism and Sadomasochism’s Connection to Forms of Dark Personality Traits

ON PROJECTION: “Edward Glover (1936) talked about the role of projection in war. The dangers of being human, Glover said, lay not in our primitive instincts, which we share with other animals, but in our struggles to control those instincts . . . From the beginning of an awareness of the object world, love and hate, desire and murderous revenge struggle in the primitive and concrete mind of the infant, and this struggle, in one way or another, continues throughout life (Holmes, 2013).”

I watched “Secrets of a Psychopath” on the AMC Channel the other night. It was a three-part series about the murder of Elaine O’Hara in Dublin, Ireland. Elaine O’Hara was not what I would call an aesthetic model of sexual beauty. Elaine O’Hara was overweight, with not a high degree of outward beauty as the fashion industry would indicate. My first impression was that it was probably easy for someone like Graham Dwyer to dehumanize her in the way that he did, feigning a false form of practice of BDSM. I say this because there is present a very real human proclivity to degrade and dehumanize women in general. Couple this proclivity with the fact a person doesn’t fit the standard of runway beauty in fashion. People that are less sexually attractive and overweight are more “invisible” than those who possess a degree of aesthetic sexual beauty. As a result, many people perceive overweight people as “nonhuman.” Although I believe Graham Dwyer’s wife was more of a model of aesthetic beauty, a thinner blonde who kept herself in shape even after the birth of their two children. Gemma Dwyer’s uncanny resemblance to Elaine O’Hara was chilling.

PHOTE 1: Graham Dwyer and Elaine O’Hara. PHOTO 2: Gemma Dwyer (Graham Dwyer’s wife)

To watch and listen to Graham Dwyer tell Elaine that he could never love someone like her because she was “fat” and “ugly” and she “deserved to die,” was like listening to a despicable monster deceive a helpless sheep and guide them to the slaughter. Elaine O’Hara had suffered from depression and was in and out of the hospital for treatment. She had recently lost her mother and was struggling with the loss. She was very vulnerable and she wanted to be loved by Graham Dwyer. She admitted to her psychiatrist the desire to engage in sex acts that involved BDSM. She entered the online world of BDSM, creating several profiles over BDSM websites and this is where she met Graham Dwyer. Their sex play including a leather hood with mouth zipper, hand and feet bindings, and chains, face harness with a mouth ball gag, rope, and two cell phones; one labeled “Master” and the other labeled “Slave.” Graham Dwyer would not have sex with Elaine O’Hara unless stabbing her with a knife was part of the sexual intercourse. And since she told him she thought of killing herself, he made her believe it was her fault for his sadistic and perverse desire because she was the one who ignited it in him by telling him she wanted to die. He told her that “he wanted to help her die.” I believe Graham Dwyer was narcissistically oriented that in his mind he perceived her as “fat,” “ugly,” perhaps even “slovenly” and as such “deserved death.” It cannot be understated what Nitschke, Osterheider, and Marshall concluded in their 2013 paper, “we argue for the use of behavioral indicators” from the crime scene in order to garner a consensus and improved agreement across diagnosing clinicians when it comes to diagnosing forms of sexual sadism. Unfortunately, sometimes a non-consensus of opinion is arrived at and patients may be misdiagnosed.

Lucy Holmes had said ultimately people are beautiful IF we love them. Except “love” in today’s world, for the female gender, is shaped mostly by men’s unconscious fantasies that are promoted through modern medicine, business enterprise (fashion), and advancing technology. Today the subjugation of women takes a form that, though rooted in the most primitive thinking, disguises itself as “choices” or “control.” The war against women today is being fought on the battlefield of the female body, and most of the combatants are women themselves. Although hear we are speaking of the modern invention of modern medicine and fashion, I find these assaults aptly apply to the advent of advancing technological weapons. The phenomenon known as electronic targeting and electronic targeted assaults to the human female body express a form of infantile narcissism towards the maternal object utilizing advancing technological culture. The assaulted female body most aptly belongs to what Andre Green (2001) called “the dead mother.”

Men obliterate the memory of an initial dependence on a woman over which they had no control, creating a psychic murder in which the maternal representation is evacuated from the mind. However, there are inevitable problems with this psychic murder. Evacuating the maternal representation from the mind creates a void within the masculine psyche. The mother who has been declared nonexistent remains emotionally irreplaceable, and the guilt which is the consequence of the fantasized matricide fuels a rigid and defensive stance toward the female sex. Men need to subjugate women to shore up the defenses created by the problem of “the dead mother” (Holmes, 2013; Jacobs, 2007).

The concept of the dead mother is as unconsciously gratifying to a woman as it is to a man. Her attack on her own body expresses her own existential anxieties about flesh and death. She cooperates with the masculine subjugation of women because if she invests all power in men and male enterprise, she can delude herself that the powerful other will save her from mortality. Woman’s masochism is a search for recognition from another who is strong enough to bestow that recognition. Her sacrifice of authoritative command actually creates his, produces his coherent self in which he can take refuge. In losing her self, she is gaining access to a more powerful one (Holmes; 2013; Benjamin, 1988).

We all, men and women, must distance ourselves from the terror of female flesh, from the time when we were completely dependent, holding onto life by the tenuous thread of our connection with a capricious woman, from the time when we had no control, when everything was new and terrifying when we were grappling in the dark. Women must be subdued; otherwise, we are face to face with the unbearable existential fact that we came into this world helpless, dependent, and terrified and will most likely leave it in the same vulnerable state. The oppression of women and the assault on the female body is an attempt to deny the infantile terror repetition of our deepest anxieties. (For a case example, please refer to “The Secrets of a Psychopath: The murder of Elaine O’Hara”).

Harriet Basseches introduced the subject of sadomasochism at the 46th Congress of the International Psychoanalytical Association in Chicago Illinois August 1, 2009, by stating that some sadomasochism is found in every case and noting that it is found at levels of differing degrees. She noted that it may be natural to find pleasure in pain, both one’s own and others’ pain, although it may be a difference in kind when the severity of the sadomasochism functions out of the normal bounds of human expectations and becomes perverse.

Basseches recounted Freud’s implication that a child’s build-in potential for sadomasochism derives from both sexual and aggressive strivings. Shengold (1989) argues for the centrality of Freud’s (1919) anal stage of development in organizing much of character and functioning. Klein (1957) sees the infant as struggling from the outset between love and hate toward the internalized essence of the caregiver. These theoreticians note the possibility of pathological, sadomasochistically tinged outcomes.

We can certainly see how this pathological sadomasochism played a part in the murder of Elaine O’Hara by Graham Dwyer. In fact, degradation and dehumanization are closely tied to acts of sadomasochistic acts of BDSM and the sadism and masochism found in abusive husband-wife relationships. Abusers will go to great lengths to prevent their wives, husbands, girlfriends, children, and significant others from a proper existence. They may forbid the use of any make-up, make them wear their hair a certain way, dress a certain way and prevent them from performing healthy activities like exercise so they can maintain control over them. These actions are part of the technology of coercive control. “By using coercion, controllers compromise the scope of effect for immediacy. Control is comprised of structural forms of deprivation, exploitation, and command that compel obedience indirectly by monopolizing vital resources, dictating preferred choices, microregulating a partner’s behavior, limiting her options, and depriving her of supports needed to exercise her independent judgment (Stark, 2007).”

In terms of gang stalking, electronic targeting, electronic targeted assaults, and other forms of electronic harassment, what gives someone the right to preside over someone’s happiness by electronically harassing the homeowners and occupants, creating uncomfortable living conditions for them? Who has this right? And at what level is clinical or subclinical sadism operating in the personality profile and functioning of the perpetrator? We certainly see the hate being directed at the target objects. To what degree does this hate operate in the internalized essence of the person’s former caregiver? Is there a shadow of this former caregiver presiding over the psyche and conscious state of the perpetrator? That is, a darkness that co-exists within his or her conscious or unconscious state that is the re-capitulation of hate toward an abusive controlling mother/parent. (Freud, 1919; Klein, 1946–1963).

In order to understand how global sadism operates at the psychic level of a person’s personality, there have been classified three (3) categories of sadism; verbal sadismphysical sadism, and vicarious sadism. Verbal sadism involves humiliating and mocking others, whereas physical sadism addresses the desire for subjugation and enjoyment of tormenting and hurting others, and vicarious sadism taps an indirect form of sadism where pleasure is obtained through observing or fantasizing about violence (Plouffe & Saklofske, 2019). Together varying levels of these three types of sadism operate on individual levels within a person’s psyche. Some individuals display consistent forms of cohesive sadism (global sadism) while others only display minimal levels or rarely at all.

On April 13, 2021 the Justice Department released a press statement regarding a mob associate who was sentenced to four-plus years for a real estate fraud scheme. The defendant stole down payments from homes from two different families (Department of Justice, April 13, 2021). Of course, this has nothing to do with the electronic targeting of people in their homes to make life for them uncomfortable. So much so their lifestyles begin to change or they are faced with moving out of the neighborhood. But one can certainly make an association between real estate property crime and gangs and mafias. Clandestine hidden networks that operate to control territory and resources. Previous research studies have indicated the presence of certain socially undesirable characteristics and success in higher business and management positions. In one research study, it was proven that business and management students show higher scores of the Dark Triad (Machiavellian, narcissism, and psychopathy) than students from other subject areas. This supports an association to levels of sadism in these students than in students in other subject areas (Krick, Tresp, Vatter, Ludwig, Wihlenda, & Rettenberger, 2016).

A major underlying assumption of positive psychology is that we can influence our well-being through our own behavior. When people have a sense of control over their own lives, they are much more likely to experience joy, happiness, and well-being (Farnier, Shankland, Kotsou, Inigo, Rosset, and Leys, 2021). Negative psychology imposes the exact opposite by restricting one’s influence over their life through techniques of behavioral control (coercive control) which I propose gang stalking and electronic targeted assaults seek to accomplish.

The Locus of Control

The locus of control can be either internal and externalInternal locus of control reflects perceptions that reinforcements are principally caused by an individual’s behavior or personality characteristics. In contrast, the external locus of control reflects the perception that reinforcements are triggered by factors external to the individual, such as chance, fate, or other people.

“The locus of control stems from the theory of social learning, proposed by Rotter (1954). The aim of this theory was to integrate connectionist and cognitivist theories in order to better predict behavior. Connectionists are interested in the consequences of behavior (contextual factors) while cognitivists are more focused on the cognitive treatment of the information (dispositional factors). According to Rotter’s theory, the likelihood of engaging in a particular behavior in a given situation depends mainly on two factors: expectancy and reinforcement value. Reinforcement value refers to the desirability of the outcomes, while expectation refers to the subjective probability that the reinforcements (i.e., desired outcomes or rewards) will appear as a result of the behavior. Formulated differently, the expectation is the perception of a causal link between the behavior and the reinforcement (Farnier, Shankland, Kotsou, Inigo, Rosset, & Leys, 2021).”

We can take this information and apply it to how gang stalking, electronic targeting, and electronic targeted assaults all work against the psyche of the victim contributing to long-term unhappiness. Long-term gang stalking, electronic targeting, and electronic targeted assaults cause people to become ill (Sheridan, James, and Roth, 2020). This displays evidence that the perpetrators of gang stalking, electronic targeting, and electronic targeted assaults possess a degree of clinical sadism to their personality profile and maybe schizophrenic as well. Searle (1965) noted the presence of the effort to drive the other person crazy as an element of schizophrenia and that is exactly what electronic harassment seeks to accomplish and this fact hints towards the very real possibility of a disturbed or disorganized personality whose formulation may be understood through the theories of matricide. It is in all likelihood the perpetrators belong to the paranoid-schizoid personality spectrum. This position is most commonly representing in the personality profile of sadistic rapists.

Speaking on the compulsion to repeat and its metaphor in eluding death, Holmes (2013) recounted the story “The Appointment in Samarra (as retold by Somerset Maugham in 1933)” at the beginning of her book:

The Speaker is Death

There was a merchant in Baghdad who sent his servant to market to buy provisions and in a little while, the servant came back, white and trembling, and said, “Master, just now when I was in the marketplace, I was jostled by a woman in the crowd, and when I turned, I saw it was Death that jostled me. She looked at me and made a threatening gesture. Now lend me your horse, and I will ride away from this city and avoid my fate. I will go to Samarra and there Death will not find me.” The merchant lent him his horse, and the servant mounted it, and he dug his spurs in its flanks and as fast as the horse could gallop, he went. Then the merchant went down to the marketplace, and he saw me standing in the crowd, and he came to me and said “Why did you make a threatening gesture to my servant when you saw him this morning?” “That was not a threatening gesture,” I said, “it was only a start of surprise. I was astonished to see him in Baghdad, for I had an appointment with him tonight in Samarra.”

Note: I want to express the fact that gang stalking, electronic targeting, and electronic targeted assaults not only belong to theories of matricide but of parricide as well. These acts are also committed against men by other men for the most part with a small percentage of women perpetrators (Fox & Fridel, 2017).

Source:

Benjamin, J. (1988). The Bonds of Love: Psychoanalysis, Feminism, and the Problem with Domination. New York. Pantheon Books.

Douglas, .H., Harris, B.A., & Dragiewicz, .M. (2019). Technology-facilitated Domestic and Family Violence: Women’s Experiences. The British Journal of Criminology, 59(3).

Farnier, J., Shankland, R., Kotsou, I., Inigo, M., Rosset, E., & Leys, C. (2021). Empowering Well-Being: Validation of a Locus of Control Scale Specific to Well-Being. Journal of Happiness Studies, Online First, 1–30.

Fox, James Alan, and Fridel, Emma E. Ph.D. Gender Differences in Patterns and Trends in U.S. Homicide, 1976–2015. Violence and Gender. Vol. 4, №2. June 1, 2017.

Freud, S. (1909). Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-year-old boy (Little Hans). In Standard Edition, Volume 10. pp 5–149. London. Hogarth Press.

______, S. (1918). From the History of an Infantile Neurosis (The Wolf Man). In SE, Volume 17. pp. 127–133.

_______, S. (1919). A child is being beaten: A contribution to the study of the origin of sexual perversions. In SE. Volume 17, pp. 175–204.

­­­­­­­­­_______, S. (1924). The dissolution of the Oedipus complex. In SE, Vol. 7.

Glover, E. (1936). The Dangers of Being Human. London. Allen and Unwin.

Green, A. (2001). The Dead Mother. In Life Narcissism, Death Narcissism. London/New York. Free Association Books.

Holmes, Lucy. (2013). Wrestling with Destiny: The Promise of Psychoanalysis. New York. Routledge.

Humphreys, L. (2011). Who’s Watching Whom? A Study of Interactive Technology and Surveillance. Journal of Communication, 61(4),

Jacobs, Amber. (2007). On Matricide: Myth, Psychoanalysis, and the Law of the Mother. New York. Columbia University Press.

_________, A. (2007). The Potential of Theory: Melanie Klein, Luce Irigaray, and the Mother‐Daughter Relationship. Hypatia, 22(3),

Johnson, L., Plouffe, R., & Saklofske, D. (2019). Subclinical Sadism and the Dark Triad. Journal of Individual Differences, 40(3), 127–133.

Klein, M. (1959). Our adult world and its roots in infancy. In The Writings of Melanie Klein, Vol. III. London: Hogarth Press, 1984.

_______, M. (1988). Envy and Gratitude and Other Works: 1946–1963. London. Virago.

Krick, A., Tresp, S., Vatter, M., Ludwig, A., Wihlenda, M., & Rettenberger, M. (2016). The Relationships Between the Dark Triad, the Moral Judgment Level, and the Students’ Disciplinary Choice. Journal of Individual Differences, 37(1), 24–30.

Lyons, M., & Jonason, P. (2015). Dark Triad, Tramps, and Thieves. Journal of Individual Differences, 36(4), 215–220.

Niedecken, D. (2016). The primal scene and symbol formation. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 97(3), 665–683.

Nitschke, J., Mokros, A., Osterheider, M., & Marshall, W. (2013). Sexual Sadism. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 57(12), 1441–1453.

Plaza, M. (2008). Ideology against women. Gender Issues, 4(1), 73–82.

Searles, H. (1965). The effort to drive the other person crazy: An element in the aetiology and psychotherapy of schizophrenia. In Collected papers in schizophrenia and related subjects (pp. 304–316). New York. International University Press.

Secrets of a Psychopath: The murder of Elaine O’Hara (Part 1)

Secrets of a Psychopath: The murder of Elaine O’Hara (Part 2)

Secrets of a Psychopath: The murder of Elaine O’Hara (Part 3)

Shengold, L. (1989). Soul murder. New Haven, CT. Yale University Press.

Sheridan, Lorraine; James, David V.; and Roth, Jayden. (March 12, 2020) The Phenomenology of Group Stalking (‘Gang Stalking’): A Content Analysis of Subjective Experiences. International Journal of Environmental Research Public Health. 17(7), 2506. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/7/2506/htm#B5-ijerph-17-02506

Sinkman, E. (2010). Battling the life and death forces of sadomasochism. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 91(4).

Stark, Evan. (2007). Coercive Control: The entrapment of women in everyday life. New York. Oxford University Press.

Stephens, D., Hill, R., & Hanson, C. (1994). The Beauty Myth and Female Consumers: The Controversial Role of Advertising. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 28(1),

United States Department of Justice. “Mob Associate Sentenced to 4+ Years for Real Estate Fraud Scheme.” U.S. Attorney’s Office. Eastern District of Pennsylvania. April 13, 2021. https://www.justice.gov/usao-edpa/pr/mob-associate-sentenced-4-years-real-estate-fraud-scheme

Wieland, C. (1996). Matricide and Destructiveness: Infantile Anxieties and Technological Culture. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 12(3),

Bondage and Discipline and The Making of New Markets for Commercial Consumer Fetishism in the Era of E-Stim

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E-stim and the electronic sex toy box. How does the era of e-stim play into the electronically targeted individual? Please click on the link Electrastim | Electro Sex | Lovehoney

For Krafft-Ebing, women are indirectly to blame for male sadism. He blamed women’s diffidence, shyness, and timidity which he believed provokes male aggression. He believed this fact was due to the inherent “natural ordering of gender” and the “natural ordering” found within its sex roles, that is, the differences between the male and female subjects. The natural design of these two human creatures created women as “modestly, coy, and subservient”, while men would enjoy “boastful, extroverted, dominant victories”. Here I question if this is not due to the fact that man, like an animal, can sniff out “weakness” and “opportunity” in another, thereby identifying avenues to exert his dominant male prowess both in the bedroom and in business? Could this be a form of an evolutionary clairsentience that promotes man’s long-term survival as a “pack animal” in matters of dominant leadership and resources?

“The task for medical sexology was to police a double boundary: between the “normal” culture of male aggression and the “abnormal” culture of sadomasochism and between “normal” female masochism and “abnormal” male masochism. The first contradiction between “natural” heterosexuality and the “unnatural perversions” was primarily managed by projecting the “perversions” onto the invented zone of race. Sexologists like Krafft-Ebing demonized sadomasochism as the psychopathology of the atavistic individual, as blood-flaw and stigma of the flesh. Sadomasochism, like other fetishisms, was figured as a regression backward in time to the “prehistory” of racial “degeneration,” existing ominously in the heart of the imperial metropolis — the degeneration of the race writ as an individual pathology of the soul.

Thus, for Krafft-Ebing, decent doses of male aggression are a fait accompli of nature. Genuine sadism, however, exists in “civilized man” only to a “weak and rather rudimentary degree.” While sadism is a natural trait of “primitive” peoples, atavistic traces of sadism in “civilized man” stem, not from the environment or social accident, but are awakened from a primordial past: “Sadism must . . . be counted among the primitive anomalies of the sexual life. It is a disturbance (a deviation) in the evolution of psychosexual processes sprouting from the soil of psychical degeneration (McClintock, 1993).”

Unbridled sadism in contrast with consensual and commercial sadomasochism reveals a difference in nature. Commercial sadomasochism is therefore considered less biologically flawed or viewed as less externalizing or internalizing the psycho-pathologies of human nature. In its presentation, it is viewed as a historical subculture that emerged in Europe alongside the imperial Enlightenment. Far from being a primordial manifestation of racial “degeneracy,” sadomasochism is a subculture organized primarily around the symbolic exercise of social risk. Indeed, the outrage of sadomasochism is precisely its hostility toward ideas involving “nature being the custodian of social power.” Sadomasochism refuses to read power as fate or destiny. And since sadomasochism is the theatrical exercise of social contradiction, it is self-consciously against nature, not in the sense that it violates natural law, but in the sense that it denies the existence of natural law in the first place. Sadomasochism performs social power as both contingent and constitutive, as sanctioned neither by fate nor by God, but by the social convention and invention, that can change and re-order relationships.

Commercial sadomasochism insists on exhibiting the “primitive” (“slave,” “baby”, “woman”) as submissive characters in a theatrical stage production. On the sadomasochism theatre stage, we observe the “primitive irrational” as a dramatic script, in a “communion of performances” that is at the heart of Western reasoning sexual deviance. The paraphernalia of sadomasochism has traditionally been boots, whips, chains, uniforms, etc. which are the paraphernalia of state power and public punishment converted into private pleasures. Sadomasochism visibly stages irrational ecstasy and the alienation of the body at the center of the theatre stage against the backdrop of a theme of hierarchy and power and the differences found in the various positions of that hierarchical power. Thus, its Western reason reveals sadomasochism’s imperial logic and domina by refusing its fate as “without power.” Sadomasochism manipulates the signs of power in order to refuse nature’s legitimate rule over the form of male biological power and the male phallus.

Feminists demonize heterosexual sadomasochism as the sanctioned exercise of male tyranny. The historical line of patriarchy parades a long history of abuses attempting to freeze power and to always make one side passive and the other side dominant. Patriarchy is, therefore, the originator of masochistic and sadistic positions. Even lesbian sadomasochism is considered by feminists a form of “self-abasement on all levels that renders wimmin unable to execute truly feminist goals. In the theories of Louise Kaplan describing lesbian homosexuality in her book “Female Perversions” she uses the term “Pinocchios” to suggest the lesbian women have not been taught in the right way of her true feminist and so, “are not real women.” That is to say, in the true and natural sense of her feminine role as heterosexual counterpart to man. The term suggests “these women are not real women” but are instead props like the marionette puppet who was in search of becoming a “real boy”, in the toy workshop of Geppetto. While I understand this perception, I do not believe that all lesbians “were not real girls” or “are not real women” for that matter. I have found many gay women contribute a lot to our world, some holding advance degrees and professional titles may be more real than some heterosexual women who “know” their positions in the hierarchy of male patriarchy. I once revealed my experiences with homosexuality and homosexual fantasy to a psychiatrist, a woman, who, possessing an advanced degree in medicine, shared Louise Kaplan’s belief. I asked her why was I having these homosexual fantasies and feelings and she said, “I believe what you are asking me has something to do with being a ‘Pinocchio’” (e.g., not a real girl/real woman). She went no further than that one sentence and then left the room. I didn’t understand her response at first, and it was only later that I came to a conclusion regarding its interpretation after reading Louise Kaplan’s “Female Perversions.” However, there is a psychoanalytic theory that suggests all girls are born bisexual and that most choose a heterosexual path (Holmes, 2008).

Of course, analyzing the practice of sadomasochism as a form of sexual slavery in lesbian relationships one can see its disguise as “sexually forcing a woman against her will.” Likewise, men who pay women money to engage in sexual play of sadomasochism and take the dominant position are paying to indulge their sadistic fantasies of sexual abuse towards women. Yet the testimony of dominatrixes reveals precisely the opposite. By far the most common service paid for by men in heterosexual sexual sadomasochism in bondage and discipline is in the position of the submissive. In fact, in most bondage and discipline in heterosexual sadomasochism, the men pay to be the “slaves”, not the women. For me, this reveals subtle, unaddressed issue regarding female sadism and female aggression and perhaps may reveal a truth when it comes to the electronic tethering of targeted individual, which has been interpreted as a “passive form of aggression”, and its connection to the statistics and trends in patterns of aggression. It is women who have to navigate the “lost phallus” in their “denial of power” and it is the women who seek out positions as dominants wielding their sexual power to subjugate men.

With regard to the electronic tethering of the human body and the human mind, I have come to a conclusion that while these electronic devices were most likely designed by men, they will undoubtedly serve women who seek avenues to play out, on a theatrical stage, the unconscious, unanalyzed fantasies of mastery and control over others, playing into recovering her lost phallus, and this play may include both men and women. In the words of one dominatrix, heterosexual bondage and discipline in sexual sadomasochism are far from being the vicious unleashing of male dominance, sadomasochism is typically the other way around. There exists only a “few” dominant men who want to indulge their sadistic fantasies of “beating” women. That in fact, it is women who want to indulge their fantasies of being phallically dominant. Of course, we could come to a conclusion that most men are probably “proper gentlemen who know how to behave and treat women” but the fact of the matter is there may be far more men willing to beat women during sex play than the evidence suggests. They just lack the financial backing to pay for and receive its entertainment. Surprisingly, it has been reported that top-level business executives and churchmen are the main solicitors for the position of “slave” in bondage and discipline in sadomasochistic sex play. They come to be punished, humiliated, frightened, and tormented to the limits of their endurance.

Sex and Electricity, Yep, it’s a thing!

In the practice of extreme pornography, the use of bondage and discipline in sexual acts of sadomasochism is a common theme. In some extreme pornography female actors as well as male actors may consent to be mildly electrocuted through the use of electric stimulation through the use of “e-stim sex toys.” Where once we witnessed the paraphernalia of sadomasochism in bondage and discipline as being traditionally boots, whips, chains, uniforms, etc. as the paraphernalia of state power and public punishments conversion into private sexual pleasures. We are now witnessing in the era of 21st-century technology a combining of the commercial consumer fetish of BDSM with the latest in e-technology (electronics, wireless electronic devices) in forms of bondage and discipline and sexual sadomasochism and its conversion onto a theatrical stage, albeit confined to the deranged mind, a hidden and clandestine use of power and dominance hidden behind a theatrical curtain. The use of electronic devices that deliver e-stim in the subjugation of powerless victims by powerful dominant.

Electroejaculation! Are you interested in knowing what it is?

Electroejaculation is a procedure used to obtain semen samples from sexually mature male mammals. The procedure is used for breeding programs and research purposes in various species, as well as in the treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction in human males. This procedure is used frequently with large mammals, particularly bulls and some domestic animals, as well as humans who have certain types of anejaculation. This is the pathological inability of a male to ejaculate despite obtaining an erection. Electroejaculation has also been used for cryo conservation of animal genetic resources where one would collect semen and keep it stored in low temperatures with the intent of conserving genetic material and future revival.

In humans, electroejaculation is usually carried out under a general anesthetic. An electric probe is inserted into the rectum adjacent to the prostate gland. The probe delivers an AC voltage, usually 12–24 volts sine wave at a frequency of 60 Hz, with a current limited to usually 500 mA, although some devices can generate currents of up to 1 A. The probe is activated for 1–2 seconds, referred to as a stimulus cycle. Ejaculation usually occurs after 2–3 stimulus cycles. Care must be taken when using currents greater than 500 mA, as tissue burns may result due to the heating of the probe. The stimulus voltage stimulates nearby nerves, resulting in contraction of the pelvic muscles and ejaculation.

In the movie “The Girl with the Dragon Tatoo”, a young woman who was sodomized anally by her rapist returns to the scene of the crime and uses an electrified cattle prod to sadistically assault the man as a form of “payback” for the wrongs committed by him.

Now, introducing new electrified sex toys and e-stim. Yes, this is just what it sounds like, sex toys that shock the skin and genitals on actual people’s bodies. Electrostimulation or e-stim via sex toys are having somewhat of a moment today. Adding an e-stim toy to certain erogenous zones can heighten sensitivity and deepen pleasurable feelings. “It gets right into those deep nerves and muscles.”

E-stim toys are toys that deliver controlled electric shock acutely, slightly sharp sparks to wherever the toy is placed on the body. They are not supposed to hurt, but rather stimulate. In the area of wireless hand-held devices, I wonder “can these e-toys be biologically implanted and controlled through remote, wireless devices? Perhaps even by a “rogue” operator? Is this what the phenomenon known as the electronically targeted individual is all about? Control of the human body, and the human mind, via remote wireless signals to stimulate/sedate (e.g., torture) a human victim?

Some men enjoy having their testicles tantalized with simulation (e.g., licking, tickling, sucking) and now the latest trend in sex toys are electronic devices that deliver, to the gonads, nipples, inner thigh, anal regions, a mild form of electrocution in the form of electronic stimulation (e-stim). Much like the cattle prods, farmers use to shock the backside of their heifers in order to direct and move them into the area they wish the livestock to be. For beginners, one source recommends the “Doc Johnson Stinger Wand.” It is also called the “Stinger Electro-Play Wand” and it retails for about $39.99 at www.lovehoney.com/bondage/electro-medical-fetish/ if you’re interested in providing your “love honey” some extra stimulation. This product is recommended for beginners because it is user friendly and provides a starting point for people interested in e-stim toys. It resembles a cattle prod used by farmers except it is made of red and black plastic instead of metal.

E-stim toys aren’t just limited to external play either. There are some toys on the market that are meant to be inserted or worn and can cause muscle contractions to those specific areas (think nipples, vagina, anus).

I have been studying psychology and psychoanalysis, in particular, the internalizing and externalizing of psychopathologies. Externalizing pathologies that give rise to deviant desires, in particular bondage and discipline and sexual sadomasochism. Most recently we have witnessed the development of phenomenon called the Targeted Individual (TIs) and the electronically Targeted Individual (eTIs). Reviewing the psychoanalytic literature of primal scene fantasies based on Freudian theory, theories in matricide, and the development of commercial consumer BDSM fetish, it shouldn’t be that difficult to see how the phenomenon of the TI and the eTI are connected to the primal scene and is a by-product of hi-tech commercial consumer fetishism in combination with the commercial consumer BDSM fetish.

Source References:

Richard von Krafft-Ebing. Psychopathia Sexualis, trans. Franklin S. Klaf. New York. Stein & Day, 1965. For analyses on the discourse of perversion and sexual deviance.

Jeffrey Weeks. Against Nature: Essays on History, Sexuality, and Identity. London. Rivers Oram, 1991. For analyses on the discourse of perversion and sexual deviance.

Jonathan Dollimore. Sexual Dissidence: Augustine to Wilde, Freud to Foucault. Oxford. Clarendon, 1991. For analyses of the discourses on perversion and sexual deviance.

Mcclintock, A. (1993). Maid to Order: Commercial Fetishism and Gender Power. Social Text, p. 87–116. Published by Duke University Press.

Kaplan, Louise J. (1987). Female Perversions: The Temptations of Emma Bovary. New York. Doubleday. Translation Copy 1991 by Louise J. Kaplan.

Holmes, Lucy. (2008). The Internal Triangle: New Theories of Female Development. New York. Jason Aronson.

Engle, Gigi. (2019). These E-Stim Sex Toys Zap You With Electricity — and You Might Actually Like It.” www.menshealth.com. Published online January 8, 2019. Accessed online February 12, 2021. https://www.menshealth.com/sex-women/a25799460/e-stim-sex-toys/

Electroejaculation. Wikipedia.org. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroejaculation. Accessed online February 12, 2021.

LoveHoney.com “The Sexual Happiness People” Online Retailer of Sex Toys, Clothing, and Supplies. Of particular interest is their “bondage” section the “electro-medical-fetish.” Accessed February 12, 2021.

https://www.lovehoney.com/bondage/electro-medical-fetish/pain-sensation-play/p/doc-johnson-the-stinger-electro-play-wand/a38583g71097.html

https://www.lovehoney.com/bondage/electro-medical-fetish/electro-sex-toys/p/electrastim-em140-sensavox-power-unit-dual-channel-electrosex-kit/a13006g13042.html

https://www.lovehoney.com/bondage/electro-medical-fetish/electro-sex-toys/p/electrastim-em60-m-flick-electrosex-stimulator-multipack-set/a26592g41294.html

Friedersdorf, Connor. (2013). “The Ethics of Extreme Porn: Is Some Sex Wrong Even Among Consenting Adults?” The Atlantic. May 16, 2013. Accessed February 21, 2021. https://www.theatlantic.com/sexes/archive/2013/05/the-ethics-of-extreme-porn-is-some-sex-wrong-even-among-consenting-adults/275898/

Other sources to consider not cited in the paper:

Butler, Judith. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford, California. Stanford University Press.

Knafo, Danielle and Feiner, Kenneth. (2006) Unconscious Fantasies and the Relational World. Hillside, NJ. The Analytic Press, Inc. Part of the “Relational Perspective Book Series” Volume 31.

Freud, Sigmund. (1924). The dissolution of the Oedipus Complex. Standard Edition. Volume 19. London: Hogarth Press.

Wieland, C. (1996). Matricide and Destructiveness: Infantile Anxieties and Technological Culture. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 12(3),

Douglas, H., Harris, B.A., & Dragiewicz, .M. (2019). Technology-facilitated Domestic and Family Violence: Women’s Experiences. The British Journal of Criminology, 59(3),

Dickes, R. (1963). Fetishistic Behavior: A Contribution to Its Complex Development and Significance. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 11(2), 303–330.

Niedecken, D. (2016). The primal scene and symbol formation. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 97(3), 665–683.

Gibson, M. (2020). Deceptive Sexual Relations: A Theory of Criminal Liability. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, Advance Article,

Conaghan, .J. (2019). The Essence of Rape. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies, 39(1),

Sanders, Laura. (2021). Can privacy coexist with technology that reads and changes brain activity? Sciencenews.org. Published online February 11, 2021. Accessed February 11, 2021. https://www.sciencenews.org/article/technology-brain-activity-read-change-thoughts-privacy-ethics?utm_source=email&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=latest-newsletter-v2&utm_source=Latest_Headlines&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Latest_Headlines

Gilbert, Ben. (2021). Elon Musk says Neuralink implanted a chip in a monkey’s brain, and now he can play video games using his mind. Business Insider. MSN.com. Published online February 1, 2021. Accessed February 11, 2021. https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/elon-musk-s-neuralink-implanted-a-chip-into-a-monkey-s-brain-and-now-he-can-play-video-games-using-his-mind/ar-BB1di71k

Elizalde, Elizabeth. (2021). Elon Musk says Neuralink could start implanting chips in human brains ‘later this year’. NYPost.com. Published online February 3, 2021. Accessed February 12, 2021. https://nypost.com/2021/02/03/elon-musk-neuralink-could-start-implanting-brain-chips-later-this-year/

Perper, Joshua A., and Cina, Stephen J. (2010) When Doctors Kill: Who, Why, and How. New York. Copernicus Books.

WRITTEN BYKaren Barna

Mother, Daughter, Gardener, Student, Graduate, Cook, Care-Giver, Lover of Books, Reader of Philosophy, Interested in Psychoanalysis

Intimate Partner Violence: How Spanking Affects Externalizing Parenting Outcomes and the Externalizing Behaviors of the Child and Its Connection to Electronic Assaults and Electronic Torture in Everyday Civilian Life in the Public at Large

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With regard to the study of parenting behaviors and their central role in influencing children’s behaviors and thereby the development of negative outcome in children’s behaviors, such as criminal offending, substance misuse, psychiatric disorders, and violence perpetration, there can be an association made between the act of visually witnessing violence and the act of personally experiencing the violence first hand through targeted electronic assaults against the body. However, the symptoms associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) and domestic violence (DV) should be the same types of symptoms observed as the side effects for those being electronically targeted with electronic assaults. Symptoms such as anxiety, depression, PTSD, substance misuse, other psychiatric disorders, and criminal offending.

In one research study, the effects of intimate partner violence (as seen in the act of spanking) and how it affects and undermines the relationship between the mother and the children. In the aftermath of violence, practitioners worked with both the mother and children as a means of intervention in supporting and strengthening the mother-child relationship.

In another area of research, the aspect of intimate partner violence plays a role when “surrogate parents” (intervening family members such as siblings who act in place for the parents) have the established existence of dark personality traits because of a personality disorders which further complicate and compounds the intimate partner violence (IPV). These are factors that contribute to the promotion of long-term side effects because these “surrogate parents” show obvious signs of not respect the rights of the mother and seek to sabotage and undermine her psychiatric treatment and healthy development. This is my truth. Using a form of electronic targeting, I was abused in my home with electromagnetic frequency vibration/stimulation that forcefully removed me from the home by some unknown assailant.

In the aftermath of this experience, in which I was forced to stay at my twin siblings’ residence since I had no other housing, I underwent outpatient therapy. I somehow came in contact with trace amounts of cocaine while staying there, and of which I tested positive for as this was part of the treatment program. I was not using at this time and I can support this statement by the fact I had cut all previous associations with my former drug suppliers following a sexual assault. I also had no income or money, and I was being treated on a daily “outpatient” basis for trauma and addiction. I believe the drug was introduced into my toothpaste or on my toothbrush. This was a most Machiavellian move as it served to undermine me and complicate my treatment program. This is the smoke and mirrors of a deception aimed at harming a person through deception. It has become clear to me that I am dealing with a sadistic narcissist.

In the paper I’m going to cite, Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Parenting and Children’s Externalizing Behaviors: Transactional Processes Over Time published in Violence Against Women on January 1, 2021, I’m going to make a comparison between the act of physically spanking with the hand and the act of physically spanking with an electronic tether, inducing an electromagnetic field in the head to cause cognitive disturbances. This fact has been reflected in my writing which sometimes is full of mistakes in both grammar and spelling. These electronic assaults have most recently been dished out in the form of punishments. This happened to me when I refused to hand over my COVID19 relief check last month, I was tortured via a biological implant in my head that delivered an electromagnetic field/signal that turned on and gave an uncomfortable sensation associated with this EMF field. Since I have past experience with trauma and addiction, I am no stranger to overnight stays in the psychiatric ward of my local hospital and, as you know, the mentally ill make up a portion of people who have been used in unethical, inhumane medical experiments. Pregnant mothers and their children make up a vulnerable group of people who are sometimes targeted especially if these new mothers are unmarried. See the Vanderbilt Nutrition Study.

In all areas of research, diagnostic tools are used to assess the efficacy of the newly developing technologies, drugs, and research. Adverse side-effects can be assessed in various ways, for example by visual observations like weight gain or loss and evaluating self-care, declining health can be supported through lab test reports. But when this happens over a relatively short period of time, the long-term effects of aging can be ruled out. Long term aging is something that naturally occurs over time but declining health that happens rapidly can be the result of physical abuse as observed in intimate partner violence (IPV) or disciplining through an electromagnetic tether.

“Both spanking and poor parent-child relationships (lacking in warmth, communication, and support) have been found to be associated with externalizing behaviors among children (Gershoff et al., 2018; Pinquart, 2017).”

This is because spanking both dehumanizes the child and can subvert the child’s worth to a level that is on par with animals. Horses get “spanked” when their riders want to “ride” and spanking offers the child no avenue for thinking critically about his or her past or present behavior. Spanking only allows the child to feel humiliated and experience the hate and frustration of the parent who has lost control in the moment and may actually be experiencing a psychotic break from reality. Although the child may make the association that whatever behavior he or she displayed was obviously unwanted, it does not provide the child a structure of loving acceptance through carefully crafted verbal communication and sensitive speech (e.g., language). Speaking the language of violence through spanking does not offer logical reasons for the parent/s disapproval of the child’s behavior. It also lacks acknowledging the very real fact that we all sometimes fail or fall short as human beings but this doesn’t mean we aren’t loved. It means we may need to change our behavior to better fit within the parameters of society. Spanking’s unspoken verbal communication (e.g., language) is violence and hate. It’s a full-on castrating rejection of the child by casting him or her down to a level that is subhuman/animal and primal. This primal association is in regard to the display of sadism that spanking offers the child and this is the primary reason why spanking may affect negative parenting outcomes and the externalizing behaviors of the child. Children are not animals or livestock. They shouldn’t be treated like one.

The paper certainly has its limitations and drawbacks. But it is also important to note that this study’s data was drawn from the longitudinal research of the effects of welfare reform on low-income households in San AntonioChicago, and Boston (Winston et al., 1999). Approximately 2,400 low-income families at or below 200% of the Federal poverty line were randomly sampled with racial and income stratifications from low-income neighborhoods. This study is useful because the aim of the study is relevant to the outcomes of parenting and children’s behaviors, and helps fill a gap in the research literature that lacks longitudinal studies in violence against women (Campbell, 2011). In addition, the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study (TCSoffers longitudinal data that gives us an opportunity to examine temporal effects.

Out of the large data sample, 965 children and their mothers who had completed the TCS study and included the children who resided with their mothers throughout all the phases of the research study. Most of the mothers identified as being Hispanic (57%) and had a mean age of 36.98 years (SE = 0.34). Most mothers indicated being single (59%) and reported their educational level as having a high school diploma/GED or less (56%). The focal children were mostly female (55%) with a mean age of 12.09 years. As a side note, 16 of the mothers possessed only an education up to the 8th grade. In 21st century America!!!!

The paper investigated the (1) effects of IPV on two parenting outcomes (maternal spanking and parent-child relationship) and the externalizing behaviors of children, and (2) it examined transactional associations between parenting and children behaviors. The paper hypothesized that IPV will affect parenting outcomes and children’s externalizing behaviors, both of which will go on to affect each other in a transactional manner over time. This is to say, reciprocal reinforcement had been observed. I like to think of this “reciprocal reinforcement” as meaning “the act of spanking as a form of violence may be reinforced as a problem-solving solution by the child in his or her externalizing behaviors.” But I cannot stress enough that various levels of sadism can be expressed in the act of “spanking.” I would like to know how these “spankings were carried out?

For me, the important information discovered in this study was the negative side-effects of externalizing behaviors in children exposed to intimate partner violence during their childhood and transactional processes were triggered where subsequent children’s behaviors and parental responses influence each other reciprocally over time. This study indicates that in understanding the effects of IPV on mothers’ parenting, we have to account for how older children as active individuals can influence parenting. This study shows how parents respond to their children’s behaviors will further impact their children’s behaviors setting off a reinforcing process.

How does this information connect with regard to the phenomenon of the electronically targeted individual? The effects of IPV and spanking’s affect on externalizing children’s behavior and the phenomenon of the electronically targeted individual suffering electronic assaults and torture, in my opinion, is part of the manifestation of everyday sadism (sadistic personality traits) within the non-incarcerated adult populationsadults who maintain subverting beliefs about others (such as found in rape myths and how children should be disciplined), and the proclivity of the human race to dehumanize groups based on differences in general.

THE RESEARCHERS OF THE STUDY ON INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE USED “THE OFFICE OF HUMAN RESEARCH ETHICS” TO EVALUATE WHETHER OR NOT THIS RESEARCH STUDY WAS MORALLY AND ETHICALLY CARRIED OUT!!!!

Source References (as they pertain to the impact of intimate partner violence and children’s externalizing behaviors and the phenomenon now known as the Electronically Targeted Individual (TIs) suffering Electronic Assaults and Electronic Torture:

1945–1947: Vanderbilt “Nutrition Study” Exposed 820 pregnant women to radioactive iron — Alliance for Human Research Protection (ahrp.org)

Chung, G., Jensen, T., Parisi, A., Macy, R., & Lanier, P. (2021). Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Parenting and Children’s Externalizing Behaviors: Transactional Processes Over Time. Violence Against Women, OnlineFirst, 1

Niedecken, D. (2016). The primal scene and symbol formation. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 97(3), 665–683.

Winnicott, D.W. (1971). “The use of the Object and relating through identifications.” In Playing and Reality. Harmondsworth. Penguin, 1980.

Feldmann, T., & Johnson, P. (1992). The Selfobject Function of Weapons: A Self Psychology Examination. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 20(4), 561–576.

Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An Integrative Review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 252–264.

Haslam, N., & Loughnan, S. (2014). Dehumanization and Infrahumanization. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 399–423.

Douglas,.H., Harris, B.A., & Dragiewicz, .M. (2019). Technology-facilitated Domestic and Family Violence: Women’s Experiences. The British Journal of Criminology, 59(3)

Other source references to consider with regard to Dark Triad personality traits and Everyday Sadism:

Krick, A., Tresp, S., Vatter, M., Ludwig, A., Wihlenda, M., & Rettenberger, M. (2016). The Relationships Between the Dark Triad, the Moral Judgment Level, and the Students’ Disciplinary Choice. Journal of Individual Differences, 37(1), 24–30.

Kohlberg, L. (1964) Development of moral character and moral ideology. In M. Hoffman & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), Review of child development research (pp. 381–432). New York. Sage.

Lind, G. (1985). The theory of moral-cognitive judgment: A socio-psychological assessment. In G. Lind, H.A. Hartmann, & R. Wakenhut (Eds.), Moral development and the social environment. Studies in the philosophy and psychology of moral judgment and education (pp. 21–53). Chicago, IL. Precedent.

Lind, G. (2002). Ist Moral lehrbar? Ergebnisse der modernen moralpsychologischen Forschung [Can morality be taught? Research findings from modern moral psychology] Berlin, Germany: Logos.

Johnson, L., Plouffe, R., & Saklofske, D. (2019). Subclinical Sadism and the Dark Triad. Journal of Individual Differences, 40(3), 127–133.

Chabrol, H., van Leeuwen, N., Rodgers, R., & Sejourne, N. (2009). Contributions of psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic personality traits to juvenile delinquency. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 734–739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.020

Buckels, E.E., Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2013). Behavioral confirmation of everyday sadism. Psychological Science, 24, 2201–2209. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613490749

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2010). Different provocations trigger aggression in narcissists and psychopaths. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 12–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550609347591

Book, A., Visser, B.A., Blais, J., Hosker-Field, A., Methot-Jones, T., Gauthier, N.Y., . . . D’Agata, M.T. (2016). Unpacking more “evil”: What is at the core of the Dark Tetrad? Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 269–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.009

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Introducing the Short Dark Triad (SD3): A brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment, 21, 28–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191113514105

WRITTEN BYKaren Barna

Mother, Daughter, Gardener, Student, Graduate, Cook, Care-Giver, Lover of Books, Reader of Philosophy, Interested in Psychoanalysis

Is Social Media Man’s New Religion? Living in the Era of Invisible 21st Century Technology

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Despite Jonathan Haidt’s (social psychologist) research on how cultures vary greatly in the way they size up what moral conduct is and how society should regulate behavior, the battle between the sexes has raged throughout history and proof can be found in the Old Testament:

“She lusted after her lovers, whose genitals were like those of donkeys and whose emission was like that of horses.” (Ezekiel 23:20 NIV)

As far as I’m concerned, the above-referenced quote is nothing more than one man’s unanalyzed unconscious fear of “smallness” and inadequacy regarding the sexual power housed underneath his religious robes! These fears have gone on to create some of the grandest delusions the world has ever seen, entire wars and genocides carried out because of them.

The same religious text that gave us the above “pearl of wisdom” gave man the following guidance:

“No one whose testicles are crushed or whose penis is cut off shall be admitted to the assembly of the LORD. (Deuteronomy 23:1 NRSV)

This makes sense since women were considered second class citizens and, completely lacking in testicles and a penis, they were excluded from roles of power: “I permit no woman to teach or have authority over men; she is to keep silent.” (Timothy 2:11)

As for women who found themselves pregnant, it was decided that if she gives birth to a son she is considered “unclean” for a lesser duration of time than if she gives birth to a daughter: “In case a woman conceives seed and does bear a male, she must be unclean seven days; as in the days of impurity when she is menstruating, she will be unclean . . . Now if she should bear a female, she must then be unclean fourteen days, as during her menstruation . . . “ (Leviticus 12:1–5)

A person’s status was dependent on his upbringing, being born out of wedlock forbids you and your descendants from entering churches: “A bitched shall not enter into the congregation of the Lord; even to his tenth generation shall he not enter into the congregation of the Lord.” (Deuteronomy 23:2)

Oddly, Jesus was born a “bitched soul” yet he rose to such a level of power as to be seated at the right hand of God himself.

Let’s not forget to mention torture and cruelty descriptions: “You will be pledged to be married to a woman, but another will take her and rape her. You will build a house, but you will not live in it. You will plant a vineyard, but you will not even begin to enjoy its fruit. Your ox will be slaughtered before your eyes, but you will eat none of it. Your asses will be forcibly taken from you and will not be returned. Your sheep will be given to your enemies, but you will have no savior. Your sons and daughters given to another people and your eyes looking on and yearning for them always — but your hands will be without power. Jehovah will strike you with a malignant boil upon both knees and both legs, from which you will not be able to be healed, from the sole of your foot to the crown of your head.” (Deuteronomy 28:30–32,35)

And of course, there were rules on how women must cover themselves and dress to pray: “…but every woman that prays or prophesies with her head uncovered shames her head, for it is one and the same as if she were a [woman] with a shaved head. For if a woman does not cover herself, let her also be shorn; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to be shorn or shaved, let her be covered.” (1 Corinthians 11:5–6)

There were laws governing war crimes and genocide: “And now kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman who has had intercourse with a man by laying with a male. And preserve alive for yourselves all the little ones among the women who have not known the act of laying with a male.”(Numbers 31:17–18)

I have not included the biblical references discussing bizarre ways to kill your children, how and when to sell your daughter into slavery, and how and when to stone them to death.

Religion was the ancient’s form of “social control” and through its high-profile representatives, a form of ancient “social media” that directly influenced populations. Religious men attempted to promote themselves through distinguished rituals in feigning a possessed form of power from God. As a social “media” platform, we can read between the lines of various religious texts and discover the presence, to a wide degree, envy, greed, and narcissism! And finally, thanks to the work of Sigmund Freud, don’t you know, “God” has been posthumously diagnosed as suffering from Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD).

In a paper by Taylor and Strutton entitled “Does Facebook usage lead to conspicuous consumption? The role of envy, narcissism, and self-promotion” (2016) stated:

“While humans have formed social ties since the beginning of time, online social networks are fundamentally different in several ways. First, an online social network can be significantly larger; a typical offline social network has approximately 125 connections compared to a median of 300 ‘friends’ for teen-age users of Facebook, the largest social networking site. Second, social media users have fewer cues by which to form impressions of others in their networks, so they must use the limited heuristics that are available, resulting in skewed perceptions. Third, and perhaps most importantly, profiles are carefully managed by users to highlight positive attributes and present a more idealized self” (Taylor & Strutton, 2016).

Are Authorities Now Using Wireless Technology as a Form of Social Control through Biological Implants that Deliver Stimulus through Clandestine Radio Wave (Wi-Fi) Technology as a Form of Technologically-Facilitated Violence?

My approach to addressing the phenomenon of electronically targeted individuals utilized various social media platforms; WordPressMediumTwitterFacebook, and Quora. I have also provided over these platforms examples in abnormal psychology, sexual deviance, and personality disorders drawn from the books of various psychoanalysts with references to some of the latest research journal publications. I am proposing that this phenomenon may actually belong to a primitive group of people the likes of which stormed the U.S. Capitol on January 6, 2021.

Last year, during one week, one of my blogs received 466 visitors. During the course of that year (2020) my blog received over 13K visitors. I am going to assume this means that people are interested in answers belonging to questions found in the field of abnormal psychology and psychoanalysis.

Most recently a journal article entitled “The Relationship Between the Dark Triad, and the Moral Judgement Level, and the Students’ Disciplinary Choices” shed light on the prevalence of Dark Triad traits among those with business degrees. That is to say, people who have occupations that require a business degree are more likely to suffer from Machiavellianismnarcissism, and psychopathy. This can be supported by the Department of Justice’s high statistics on white-collar crime and grand theft. In addition, this may be a factor that plays into the phenomenon of electronically targeted individuals suffering electronic assaults and torture. Since businesses create new products and manufacture new technologies all the time, and these new products and new technologies must be purchased by consumers there exists a business interest with regard to consumer consumption and marketing of these new products and new technologies. Wireless technologies that attack and torture human beings appeal to certain personality types like those with antisocial personality disorder or in people who suffer the Dark Triad personality traits. Questions arise as to “Who has the purchasing power to buy into these new advancing tools?” as well as “How are new consumes being targeted with regard to future sales in advertising, marketing, and healthcare?” These questions bring up other interesting questions. Questions like, “Is electronic targeting utilizing biological implants the result of local state and policing municipalities of social control?” “Or is this form of targeting the result of a post 9/11 democracy and its war on terrorism?” “Or is it the result of a democracy promoting its own form of National Socialism (free healthcare) that’s harvesting within its borders free human test fodder for experimentation?”

The paper that analyzed the effects of social media on its users said:

“Facebook users have demonstrated higher levels of envy and lower life satisfaction. They also frequently perceive others as being happier and having better lives. Furthermore, Facebook interaction may increase communication overload and reduce self-esteem. Building on these findings, this study proposes that Facebook users persistently compare themselves to other users. These comparisons, in turn, create both positive feelings (i.e. narcissism) and negative feelings (i.e. envy). This amalgam of feelings may ultimately elevate users’ desires to promote themselves through conspicuous online consumption of positional goods (Taylor & Strutton, 2016).”

For those of you who may not understand the term conspicuous consumption, it is the spending of money on the acquiring of luxury goods and services to publicly display the economic power of the income or of the accumulated wealth of the buyer. To the conspicuous consumer, such as public display of discretionary economic power is a means of either attaining or maintaining a given social status. The sociologist and economist Thorstein Veblen coined the term “conspicuous consumption,” and was a pioneer of the institutional economics movement. Veblen’s theory also produced the term invidious consumption, the ostentatious consumption of goods to provoke the envy of the people, and conspicuous compassion, the deliberate use of charitable donations of money to enhance the social prestige of the donor with a display of superior socio-economic status.

With regard to the United States government, they carry out their own form of conspicuous consumption although it is usually in the form of military acquisitions in the area of the latest fighter jets and military tanks and equipment designed to display the nation’s strength and power.

Are these newly created electronically targeted individuals suffering electronic assaults and torture part of the modern day’s version of the envies that are inspired as a result of one person’s individual envy of another’s online “conspicuous consumption” or is this a new “security tool” being utilized in the 21st century of advancing invisible technology revolving around clandestine means of social control? What’s interesting about “invisible history” is it contains countless examples of unethical, inhumane, experiments that have been carried out on groups within its population, sometimes in secret and sometimes not so secret, even before Hitler decided to exterminate the Jews and perform bizarre, painful, unethical, inhumane medical tests on them.

Reference Source:

Krick, A., Tresp, S., Vatter, M., Ludwig, A., Wihlenda, M., & Rettenberger, M. (2016). The Relationships Between the Dark Triad, the Moral Judgment Level, and the Students’ Disciplinary Choice. Journal of Individual Differences, 37(1), 24–30.

Taylor, D., & Strutton, D. (2016). Does Facebook usage lead to conspicuous consumption? The role of envy, narcissism, and self-promotion. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 10(3), 231–248.

Perper, Joshua A. & Cina, Stephen J. (2010) When Doctors Kill: Who, Why and How. New York. Copernicus Books (2010).

Feldmann, T., & Johnson, P. (1992). The Selfobject Function of Weapons: A Self Psychology Examination. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 20(4), 561-576.

WRITTEN BYKaren Barna

Mother, Daughter, Gardener, Student, Graduate, Cook, Care-Giver, Lover of Books, Reader of Philosophy, Interested in Psychoanalysis

The Subject and Power: Subjugation in the era of 21st century Android and drone technology

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Updated: January 28, 2021 06:46 AM EST

Tags: Technology-Facilitated Violence, Subjection, Subjugation, Coercive Control, Social Injustice, Social Inequality, Power, Domination, Social Control, Oppression, Silence, Denial,Cyber Crime, Cyber Misbehavior, Electronic Torture, Electronic Harassment, Electronic Targeting, Targeted Individuals, Electromagnetic Frequency, Radio Waves

To gain an appreciation on how the “Subject and Power” operate (a nod to Michael Foucault), particularly within the realm of the global social order you have to first begin to ask yourself how marginalized groups have been utilized, in particular, those deemed less valuable or “worthless” or those feared like the homosexual or the “psychopath” by those in positions of control and power, and by “those in positions of control and power”, I mean people like; doctors, lawyers, politicians, those in administrative judicial positions, teachers, the military, etc. And by marginalized groups; I mean female black slaves, black male sharecroppers and their families, women, the disabled, children, the mentally ill, the Jews during the Holocaust, those found in the lower class subdivisions. First, the government exploits young men and women from disadvantaged upbringings by offering them positions in the military. Why? Because of the “untamed sexual instincts of the lower classes” that cause “incompetent mating and/or pairing” with a “larger number of offspring” within those subdivisions of class. You’ll never see a military recruitment office on the grounds of Harvard or Yale Universities. Why? In a comment that has been rescinded, university administrators have said, “There is no need for a recruitment office on the grounds of our campus.” This is because with a Harvard or Yale degree a young man or woman doesn’t have to sell themselves into the hands of the Devil, risking life and limb to earn income and provide for their families. Hearing this comment from Harvard’s school administrator, at least for me, drew a stark defined line in the sand between the “haves” and “haves not”. Those that rule and those that do not.

Money is the God that rules the global social order whether you realize it or not. In particular, capitalistic markets have always strived to drive competition, innovation, and invention in order to create new market economies that strengthen the American economy. Big pharma is one of those markets. Technology is another. Medicine’s dependency on technology is growing at an ever-alarming rate and test subjects, sometimes scarce, historically were found among the human fodder of the lower classes. Human beings are seen as commodities, but not just by misogynistic men and criminal sex traffickers. They are seen as commodities by both the federal government with their military soldiers and by those in experimental research programs who experiment on human test subjects. This is a historical fact. It is in man’s nature to be over-controlling, narcissistic, and sadistic. Historically speaking, women have suffered at the hands of powerful men, and in their socially defined roles, they have suffered immense pain and terrible consequences for any perceived deviations from what was expected of them. Nicole Loraux was a French historian of classical Athens. She wrote,

“Deaths represented on the stage, great suffering, wounds: events of tragedy, a spectacle. As one considers the examples given by Aristotle to support his definition of tragic pathos as “action causing destruction or suffering,” how can one possibly doubt that in the Athenian theater death was meant to be seen? Thanatoi en toi phaneroi: death agonies in public, a murder in front of everybody . . . As I reread Aristotle’s sentence, I am puzzled, and I realize that I should warn the reader that in these pages it is the listener to tragedy who will take precedence over the spectator, because everything comes to us through words. Everything happens in words, and this is particularly true of death (Loraux, 1991).”

Psychology and psychoanalysis have turned to ancient Greek classical literature to understand and interpret, from a psychological perspective, the tropes and themes of tragedy. Tropes and themes that sometimes involve War and Death. The human psyche represents a similar theatre stage. In every individual’s life, the characters are cast alongside one another and each character delivers their role. As the storylines unfold, characters that are not too unfamiliar to the ones cast in Shakespearian drama, comedy, and tragedy interact with the subject and they play out their history.

Philosophy and Reading Silence

In Loraux’s words, “…it is the listener to tragedy who will take precedence over the spectator, because everything comes to us through words.” This is, for the most part, true. However, I would substitute “words” for “language” because not all stories are told through the explicit written word, some stories come to us through the language of silence and denial. That is, in the absence of what can be directly spoken. That is, in the absence of vision. In the philosophy of silence, Jean-François Lyotard wrote:

“Language” has no exterior because it is not in space. But it can say space. It can say the body. It can say the body “says” something, that silence speaks (Lyotard, 1984; Lyotard, 1988).”

And this is true. We can understand the language of silence through metaphor and symbolism. In Philosophy and the Maternal Body: Reading silence, Michelle Boulous Walker discusses the philosophical problems with Louis Althusser writings, she quotes Monique Plaza, Ideology Against Women:

“. . .[Althusser] defends his social position as a man, which totally blinds him to the sex-class antagonisms and oppression in which he participates. This is far more a crime of theory against women than it is a crime of revisionism. The murder of a woman is within the continuum of the discursive negation of women. It is, perhaps the Althusserians would say, an ideology in action. In fact, I agree: ideology against women is not just a matter of words; it is also a matter of death (Walker, 1998, p.39).”

In reading with the eye, in the absence of what is not spoken, because non-vision is a form of vision and is inside vision, Althusser states, “to understand this necessary and paradoxical identity of non-vision and vision with vision itself . . . [in order] to make us see what the . . . text itself says while not saying it, does not say while saying it (Althusser, 1979) . . . This field organizes the possibilities of the text, as a field of vision and in so doing creates in this same gesture the field of non-vision or impossibility, the silences, and exclusions. What the problematic refuses becomes the repressed, unconscious of the text (Walker, 1998, p. 35).”

Poetics and metaphor

Part of the purpose for the study of psychoanalysis and of the study of history is to come to an understanding of various historical phenomena that have contributed to human pain and suffering. With the development of 21st-century technology, we observe the phenomena known as the Targeted Individual suffering from electromagnetic assaults and torture, that event is placed inside a field of non-vision, we need to read the text with the eye of non-vision instead of with the explicit word of vision because this phenomenon comes to use inside the field of the non-spoken word; the invisible. The approach to the analysis of electromagnetic assaults requires us to utilize the pivotal space within philosophy, constantly shifting our gaze from what is periodically visible and invisible, between what is explicitly said and what is symbolically rendered and unspoken. “Now this is not to say that it serves the same purpose as it does in Plato’s text [cave allegory] but rather that its presence signifies a tension in each, the point at which the text “divulges the undivulged event (Walker, 1998, p. 35)”

Speaking the Silence of the Undivulged Event

In a journal article entitled Subclinical Sadism and the Dark Triad published in the Journal of Individual Differences, researchers analyzed the prevalence of “everyday sadism” among a population of Canadian college students. Everyday sadism is also defined as “subclinical sadism,” which has been linked to the Dark Triad. Sadism refers to the dispositional tendency to engage in cruel, demeaning, or antagonistic behaviors for pleasure or subjugation (Plouffe, Saklofske, & Smith, 2017). Sadistic individuals take pleasure in causing or witnessing acts of cruelty, in which the suffering of others in itself is rewarding (Baumeister & Campbell, 1999; Plouffe et al., 2017). “Charbrol et al. (2009) observed that sadistic traits present in both the normal population as well as in clinical and criminal groups, suggesting that sadism is a dimensional personality trait that lies on a continuum.” In their study, sadism and psychopathy independently predicted delinquent and antisocial behaviors in adolescent boys, and the authors suggested that the underlying aggressive and impulsive tendencies of the high-sadism individual explain its stronger link with delinquency. They subsequently proposed that the “Dark Triad” should be expanded to include sadism and renamed the “Dark Tetrad.” As such, the objective of this study was to investigate the dimensionality of the Dark Tetrad and evaluate whether sadism is a unique, yet conceptually related construct of the Dark Triad traits.

The primary purpose of the research study was to investigate how sadism correlates with relevant personality constructs and distinguish sadism from other “dark” constructs and examine its relationships with broader personality traits. Construct validity for subclinical sadism was supported through negative correlations with agreeableness, honesty-humility, emotionality, and conscientiousness, which was consistent with other research findings (Johnson, Plouffe, & Saklofske, 2019).

Since subclinical sadism is a personality trait that exists on a continuum within the population, the researchers of the Dark Triad sadism study proposed that the “Dark Triad” be changed to the “Dark Tetrad.” This change would encompass three new facets that weren’t previously included in the Dark Triad: verbal sadismphysical sadism, and vicarious sadism. Verbal sadism involves humiliating and mocking others. Whereas physical sadism involves sadism addresses the desire for subjugation and enjoyment of hurting others, and vicarious sadism taps an indirect form of sadism where pleasure is obtained through observing or fantasizing about violence. While sadism, psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism are all positively associated with aggression, their situational determinants are different. Specifically, those high in sadism engage in violence for sheer enjoyment (Buckels et al., 2013), whereas psychopathic individuals are aggressive for instrumental purposes or when physical provocation takes place (Jones & Paulhus, 2010). Those high in narcissism are aggressive in reaction to ego threats (Jones & Paulhus, 2010), and individuals high in Machiavellianism are more cautious and are less likely to be aggressive unless it benefits them considerably (Jones & Neria, 2015; Jones & Paulhus, 2011). Correlations between the Dark Triad and sadism are often reported as small to moderate for narcissism and moderate to large for Machiavellianism and psychopath (e.g., Book et al., 2016; Buckels et al., 2013; Chabrol et al., 2009; Pajevic, Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, Stevanovic & Neuman, 2018; Plouffe et al., 2017).

Since the majority of sociopaths, psychopaths, narcissists, those in possession of personality disorders like Machiavellianism are not found primarily in jails and prisons and reside within the public sphere of civilian everyday life, the paper Subclinical Sadism and the Dark Triad is worthy of consideration with regard to the development of the 21st-century phenomena of Targeted Individuals suffering from electromagnetic assaults and torture. Using this information to support the prevalence of everyday sadism within the general population (e.g. subclinical sadism) and the use of wireless remote clandestine technologies that target and manipulate human objects, we can draw a conclusion with regard to its tropic of discourse. That is to say, it’s “figure of speech.” A trope presupposes an accepted version of reality for its operation. According to Hayden White’s remark in Tropics of Discoursetrope comes to us through the word tropus, which in Classical Latin meant “metaphor” or “figure of speech.” And with regard to the development of the 21st-century phenomena known as the Targeted Individual we come back to Althusser’s problematic. That is the self-serving entitlement of a male’s social position through subjugation, abuse, and oppression. Of which we have historically witnessed as a “figure of speech” time and time again especially as it applies to music theory of “mood” and “measure”.

The 21st-century phenomena of Targeted Individuals suffering electromagnetic assaults and torture belong to a network of hidden operators working in the service of some male’s self-entitled social position, or more clearly, in the service of dominant masculinity to utilize power through abusive clandestine subjugation and oppression. That is, it comes to us through the masculine social position of power and dominance traditionally witnessed in patriarchy, and to which American’s recently witnessed as the white supremacy and neo-Nazi groups that stormed the U.S. Capitol building.

Sources:

Loraux, Nicole. (1991) Tragic Ways of Killing a Woman. Trans. Anthony Forester. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Lyotard, Jean-François. (1984) “Interview with Georges Van Den Abbeele, Diacritics 14(3), p. 17.

Lyotard, Jean-François. (1988) The Differend: Phrases in Dispute. trans. Georges Van Den Abbeele. Minneapolis. University of Minnesota Press.

Walker, Michelle Boulous. (1998) Philosophy and the Maternal Body: Reading silence. New York. Routledge.

Plaza, Monique. (1984) “Ideology Against Women”, Feminist Issues 4(1), pp. 73–82. Somer Brodribb’s discussion of the murder of Helene Rythmann should be read along with Plaza’s article. She provides a wonderful sampling of the various responses to Althusser’s crime. Somer Brodribb, Nothing Mat(t)ers: A Feminist Critique of Postmodernism (Melbourne: Spinifex Press, 1992, p. 3)

Althusser, Louis. (1979). “From Capital to Marx’s Philosophy” in Reading Capital, Louis Althusser and Extienne Balibar, trans. Ben Brewster (London: Verso, pp. 13–78)

Johnson, L., Plouffe, R., & Saklofske, D. (2019). Subclinical Sadism and the Dark Triad. Journal of Individual Differences, 40(3), 127–133.

Plouffe, R.A., Saklofske, D.H., & Smith, M.M. (2017). The Assessment of Sadistic Personality: Preliminary psychometric evidence for a new measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 166–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.07.043

Chabrol, H., van Leeuwen, N., Rodgers, R., & Sejourne, N. (2009). Contributions of psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic personality traits to juvenile delinquency. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 734–739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.020

Baumeister, R.F., & Campbell, W.K. (1999). The intrinsic appeal of evil: Sadism, sensational thrills, and threatened egotism. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3, 210–221. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0303_4

Buckels, E.E., Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2013). Behavioral confirmation of everyday sadism. Psychological Science, 24, 2201–2209. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613490749

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2010). Different provocations trigger aggression in narcissists and psychopaths. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 12–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550609347591

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2011). The role of impulsivity in the Dark Triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 679–682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.011

Jones, D.N., & Neria, A. L. (2015). The Dark Triad and dispositional aggression. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 360–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.021

Pajevic, M., Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, T., Stevanovic, N., & Neumann, C.S. (2018). The relationship between the Dark Tetrad and a two-dimensional view of empathy. Personality and Individual Differences, 123, 125–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.11.009

Book, A., Visser, B.A., Blais, J., Hosker-Field, A., Methot-Jones, T., Gauthier, N.Y., . . . D’Agata, M.T. (2016). Unpacking more “evil”: What is at the core of the Dark Tetrad? Personality and Individual Differences, 90, 269–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.11.009

White, Hayden. (1978). Tropics of Discourse. Baltimore, Maryland. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Axon, Pulver, Stassen-Berger, Fraser, Salman, Penzenstadler, Wedell, Hines, & Baratz (2021) Capitol riot arrests: See who’s been charged across the U.S. USA Today. Published online January 27, 2021. Retrieved January 27, 2021. https://www.usatoday.com/storytelling/capitol-riot-mob-arrests/

WRITTEN BYKaren Barna

Mother, Daughter, Gardener, Student, Graduate, Cook, Care-Giver, Lover of Books, Reader of Philosophy, Interested in Psychoanalysis

Subclinical Sadism, The Dark Triad or The Dark Tetrad, and the Importance of Analyzing Greek Tragedies: How This Applies to Technology-Facilitated Violence

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Cabanel Oedipus Separating from Jocasta

Updated: January, 28, 2021 08:07 AM EST

Tags: Dark Triad, Dark Tetrad, Factor Analysis, Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, Sadism, Verbal Sadism, Physical Sadism, Vicarious Sadism, Analyzing Greek Tragedies, Tragic Ways of Killing a Woman, Jocasta, Ancient Greek Tragedy

This paper draws on the research information provided in the paper cited at the end of this article, Subclinical Sadism and the Dark Triad.

Among the general population, individuals may take advantage of others without concern for how their actions may hurt them. The “Dark Triad” is a term that refers to a group of social malevolent traits known as Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. For clarity and for the purpose to provide a more proverbial understanding, Machiavellianism describes an exploitative interpersonal style, a cynical view of human nature, and an “ends justify the means” attitude. Narcissism is characterized by feelings of entitlement, superiority, and self-enhancing behaviors. Psychopathy is defined by shallow affect, impulsivity, risk-taking, and Physical aggression. Individuals who score high in the Dark Triad traits are callous, emotionally detached, and lack empathy for individuals they exploit. Other traits included in the triad is a willingness to engage in emotional manipulation and animal cruelty. At the heart of the Dark Triad is a “core” identified as callous manipulation, low honesty-humility, or low agreeableness.

Another term used, subclinical sadism, also referred to as “everyday sadism” has been linked to the Dark Triad. Sadism refers to the dispositional tendency to engage in cruel, demeaning, or antagonistic behaviors for pleasure or subjugation. Sadistic individuals take pleasure in causing or witnessing acts of cruelty, in which the suffering of others in itself is rewarding. Charbrol et al. (2009) observed that sadistic traits present in both the normal population as well as in clinical and criminal groups, suggesting that sadism is a dimensional personality trait that lies on a continuum. In their study, sadism and psychopathy independently predicted delinquent and antisocial behaviors in adolescent boys, and the authors suggested that the underlying aggressive and impulsive tendencies of the high-sadism individual explain its stronger link with delinquency. They subsequently proposed that the “Dark Triad” should be expanded to include sadism and renamed the “Dark Tetrad.” As such, the objective of this study was to investigate the dimensionality of the Dark Tetrad and evaluate whether sadism is a unique, yet conceptually related construct of the Dark Triad traits.

Subclinical sadism is a personality trait that exists on a continuum within the population. It is composed of three facets: verbal sadismphysical sadism, and vicarious sadism. For clarity and for the purpose to provide a more proverbial understanding, verbal sadism involves humiliating and mocking others. Whereas physical sadism involves sadism addresses the desire for subjugation and an enjoyment of hurting others, and vicarious sadism taps an indirect form of sadism where pleasure is obtained through observing or fantasizing about violence. While sadism, psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism are all positively associated with aggression, their situational determinants are different. Specifically, those high in sadism engage in violence for sheer enjoyment, whereas psychopathic individuals are aggressive for instrumental purposes or when physical provocation is present. Those high in narcissism are aggressive in reaction to ego threats, and individuals high in Machiavellianism are more cautious and are less likely to be aggressive unless it benefits them considerably. Correlations between the Dark Triad and sadism are often reported as small to moderate for narcissism and moderate to large for Machiavellianism and psychopath.

Of the Dark Triad traits, subclinical sadism is most closely related to psychopathy. For example, both traits are associated with engaging in unprovoked aggression. Additionally, psychopathy has a strong positive relationship with “schadenfreude”. Like sadism, schadenfreude involves deriving pleasure from another’s misfortune or suffering, though indirectly. Furthermore, they both engage in antisocial and delinquent behaviors (Chabrol et al., 2009), lack empathy for others (Pajevic et al., 2018), and display deficits in emotional recognition (Pajevic et al., 2018).

Conceptually, sadism is associated with deriving enjoyment from hurting other people and seeking out opportunities to do so. Although psychopathy is also associated with hurting others, aggressive behavior may result from boredom or occur for instrumental gain, as opposed to the enjoyment of cruelty. Buckels et al. (2013) reported that individuals high in psychopathy will only hurt others when it is easy and convenient, consistent with the tendency of high-psychopathy individuals to be impulsive and seek out short-term thrills despite long-term consequences.

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate how sadism correlates with relevant personality constructs and distinguish sadism from other “dark” constructs and examine its relationships with broader personality traits. We hypothesized that subclinical sadism would positively correlate with Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. We expected negative relationships for agreeableness, honesty-humility, and emotionality with psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and sadism. Based on Plouffe et al. (in press), we also expected negative relationships for extraversion and conscientiousness with the Dark Tetrad (excluding narcissism, for which Plouffe et al., in press) reported positive correlations. However, we did not expect any relationship with openness to experience.

An additional objective of the current study was to examine the factor structure of the Dark Triad (SD3) and the CAST. We expected that six factors would be extracted, representing the three factors of the SD3 (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism) and the three factors of the CAST (verbal sadism, physical sadism, vicarious sadism).

Significant gender differences were observed between men and women on all variables except for agreeableness, honesty-humility, openness to experience, and extraversion.

We aimed to separate sadism from the Dark Triad and examine how sadism relates to traits of the HEXACO model. Conceptually, individuals high in sadism should be low in agreeableness, honesty-humility, and emotionality given their enjoyment of dominating and hurting others. These relationships would also follow the patterns of the Dark Triad traits observed in previous research. Low agreeableness reflects a tendency to be vindictive, critical, argumentative, and hostile, whereas low honesty-humility is observed in manipulative, greedy, egotistical, and unfair behavior, and low emotionality reflects toughness, lack of anxiety, and low empathy. Thus, construct validity for subclinical sadism was supported through negative correlations with agreeableness, honesty-humility, emotionality, and conscientiousness, which was consistent with findings by Plouffe et al. (in press). Of note, the negative correlations observed for sadism with openness to experience were marginal but significant. Furthermore, no significant relationships were observed for extraversion, excluding a small negative correlation with physical sadism.

To provide clarity, some of the questions asked on the questionnaire in the research study to research the factor matrix for the Dark Triad and subclinical sadism were questions like, “I like to get revenge on authorities” and “Payback needs to be quick and nasty” in addition to “People who mess with me always regret it” and “I enjoy tormenting people” as well as “I enjoy physically hurting people.” The questions were posed with a 5-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). Past research supports the reliability and validity of the scale (Jones & Paulhus, 2014).

The Dark Triad traits were positively correlated with subclinical sadism, suggesting that sadism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism share common elements. Interestingly, each sadism subscale correlated most strongly with psychopathy, but these correlations were not high enough to suggest that psychopathy and sadism can be reduced to the same factor. In other words, the facets of sadism still carry sufficient unique variance.

Consistent with hypotheses, a six-factor solution best fit the data from the CAST and SD3, representing Machiavellianism, psychopathy, physical sadism, verbal sadism, narcissism, and vicarious sadism. Thus, despite the relatively strong correlations between sadism and psychopathy, psychopathy and each facet of the CAST loaded onto its own factor. Of these facets, physical sadism was most strongly related to psychopathy. Both psychopathy and physical sadism items assess hurting and dominating others (e.g., SD3: People who mess with me always regret it; CAST: I have dominated others using fear); however, on the factor level, only one physical sadism item loaded onto psychopathy. This is in keeping with research by Paulhus (2014), who distinguished between sadism and psychopathy, such that a feature of sadism is deriving pleasure from cruelty, whereas key features of psychopathy include impulsivity, manipulation, and erratic behaviors. Multiple studies have demonstrated that psychopathy is related to instrumental and reactive violence. That is, individuals high in psychopathy may hurt others in the pursuit of a separate goal, such as money (instrumental violence), or as an emotional response to provocation (reactive violence).

In contrast, for sadists, hurting others may be the goal itself, with cruelty being intrinsically enjoyable. In a study investigating unprovoked aggression, Buckels et al. (2013) found that while both high-psychopathy and high-sadism individuals were willing to engage in aggression against an innocent victim, only high-sadism individuals would do so when it required effort (i.e., completing a tedious letter-counting task). Verbal sadism focuses on the purposeful enjoyment of mocking and tormenting others, whereas vicarious sadism is more indirect, as the individual deriving sadistic pleasure from the violence does not actually cause the harmSadism has been previously linked to the vicarious enjoyment of others’ suffering, such as watching videos, depicting harmful pranks and accidents, and experiencing pleasure from partaking in virtual violence, such as violent video games. Because the verbal, physical, and vicarious sadism subscales loaded on their own factors in the current study, this provides evidence that sadism cannot entirely be subsumed by psychopathy. Furthermore, sadism is correlated with the other Dark Triad traits, its correlations are similar in magnitude to the correlations between narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Ultimately, the results of the current study suggest that sadism is generally distinct from, albeit related to the traits comprising the “Dark Tetrad.”

The current study investigated sadism in relation to the Dark Triad. The results distinguished vicarious, physical, and verbal sadism from psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism and also replicated past relationships between subclinical sadism and relevant personality traits. At the factor level, subclinical sadism can be distinguished from psychopathy by its facets, which loaded separately from psychopathy. The present study’s findings add support to the position of subclinical sadism in a revised “Dark Tetrad” of personality.

Subclinical sadism displays motivations for cruelty and aggression. While sadism, psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism are all positively associated with aggression, their situational determinants are different. Specifically, those high in sadism engage in violence for sheer enjoyment (Buckels et al., 2013), whereas psychopathic individuals are aggressive for instrumental purposes or when physically provoked (Jones & Paulhus, 2010). Those high in narcissism are aggressive in reaction to ego threats (Jones & Paulhus, 2010), and individuals high in Machiavellianism are more cautious and are less likely to be aggressive unless it benefits them considerably (Jones & Paulhus, 2011).

In a book entitle Tragic Ways of Killing a Woman written by Nicole Loraux, details that in ordinary life an Athenian woman was allowed no accomplishments beyond leading a quiet and exemplary existence as wife and mother. Her glory was to have no glory. In Greek tragedy, however, women die violently. “More precisely, it was in this violence that a woman mastered her death, a death that was not simply the end of an exemplary life as a spouse. It was a death that belonged to her totally, whether, like Sophocles’ Jocasta, she inflicted it “herself upon herself” or, more paradoxically, had it inflicted upon her. It was a brutal death, whose announcement was curt — thus for the wife-and-mother of Oedipus “one word is enough, as brief to utter as it is to hear: she is dead, that noble figure Jocasta”; but the manner of the death, painful or shocking, gave rise to a long recital. For the event, as soon as it was announced in its stark nakedness, evoked a question that was always the same: “How? Tell us, how?” So, the messenger gave an account, and it was thus that tragedy broke the silence that was widely observed in the Greek tradition on the manner of death (Loraux, 1991).” Greek tragedies are a genre of literature that delights in blurring the formal frontier between masculine and feminine. Through the subtlety of reading these powerful and ambiguous texts, Nicole Loraux elicits an array of insights into Greek attitudes toward death, sexuality, and gender.

It is interesting to discover and connect the puzzle pieces. Pieces that include the Dark Triad and subclinical sadism, technology-facilitated violence, and analyzing classical Greek tragedies we might be able to construct a picture, an understanding for the reasons behind the phenomena we know as the Targeted Individual, electronic targeting, and torture of U.S. American citizens, and put meaning and reason behind why it is occurring.

Source:

Johnson, L., Plouffe, R., & Saklofske, D. (2019). Subclinical Sadism and the Dark Triad. Journal of Individual Differences, 40(3), 127–133.

Chabrol, H., van Leeuwen, N., Rodgers, R., & Sejourne, N. (2009). Contributions of psychopathic, narcissistic, Machiavellian, and sadistic personality traits to juvenile delinquency. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 734–739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.06.020

Pajevic, M., Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, T., Stevanovic, N., & Neumann, C.S. (2018). The relationship between the Dark Tetrad and a two-dimensional view of empathy. Personality and Individual Differences, 123, 125–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.11.009

Buckels, E.E., Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2013). Behavioral confirmation of everyday sadism. Psychological Science, 24, 2201–2209. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613490749

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Introducing the Short Dark Triad (SD3): A brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment, 21, 28–41. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191113514105

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2010). Different provocations trigger aggression in narcissists and psychopaths. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 12–18. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550609347591

Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2011). The role of impulsivity in the Dark Triad of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 51, 679–682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.011

Loraux, Nicole. (1991) Tragic Ways of Killing a Woman. Trans. Anthony Forester. Cambridge University Press.

Additional notes and information:

Discrimination Testing in Sensory Science: A Practical Handbook. (2017) Edited by Lauren Rogers. Woodhead Publishing. Copyright by Elsevier Ltd.

“The benefit of the tetrad test is that it has the ability to detect differences more often and it requires a smaller sample size; as long as the effect size (size of the difference between two groups) does not decrease by more than one third the effect size of the triangle test, the tetrad test is a more powerful discrimination test

The specified tetrad on the other hand is a more powerful test. There are six possible presentation orders, AABB, ABAB, ABBA, BBAA, BABA, and BAAB, but only the grouping AABB is the correct answer as the instructions for this test requires that the panelist selects the two stimuli with the largest sensory magnitude. The probability of guessing the correct answer in that scenario is 1/6.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/tetrad-test

WRITTEN BYKaren Barna

Mother, Daughter, Gardener, Student, Graduate, Cook, Care-Giver, Lover of Books, Reader of Philosophy, Interested in Psychoanalysis